Friday, July 29, 2011


Lectured by: Dr. Aniruddha; Management & Science University
Notes by: Malilith F. Ila; from Dr. Aniruddha's class lecture

Or also known as haemoglobin

Functions of haemoglobin
i) Delivers oxygen to tissues
ii) Take carbon dioxide to the lungs
iii) For gas exchange process

- One hemoglobin can bind to 4 oxygen molecules
- Less than 0.01second required for oxygen binding
- β-chain move closer when it is oxygenated
- When oxygenated, 2-3-DPG (2-3-diphosphoglycerate) is pushed out
- β-chains are pushed apart when oxygen is unloaded, permitting entry

Hemoglobin must bind to the oxygen in the lungs and release it in the capillaries
- When the first Fe in heme in hemoglobin binds to oxygen, the Fe, heme, is drawn into the base of porphyrin ring
- This initiates a series of conformational changes that are transmitted to adjacent subunits
- Adjacent subunits affinity for oxygen increases
- This is called as a positive cooperativity

Extra! Venous blood = 20-60mmHg of oxygen; Arterial blood = 60-80mmHg of oxygen

When blood is in the lungs, where the oxygen is plenty, oxygen easily binds to the first subunits and then quickly fills up the remainings.
Then, as blood circulated through the body, the oxygen level drops while that of carbon dioxide increases

Hemoglobin releases its oxygen, as soon as the 1st oxygen molecule drops off, the protein starts changing its shape
- This prompts the remaining three oxygen to be quickly released
- In this way, hemoglobin picks up the largest load of oxygen in lungs, and deliver to where and when it's needed

Extra! Addition of carbon dioxide decreases the affinity of oxygen

Hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve

- Oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin at different concentration of oxygen
- Sigmoid shaped
- Binding of one molecule facilitate the second molecule binding

Extra! P50 is the partial pressure of O2 at which hemoglobin is half saturated with oxygen; 26.6 mmHg

Fate of Red Blood Cells

- Erythrocytes only stay in the circulation for about 120 days
- Then, it was engulfed by macrophages by phagocytosis (the old and damaged erythrocytes)

Extra! Conjugated bilirubin is not soluble in water. Also called as indirect bilirubin. Unconjugated bilirubin is soluble in water and can be excreted through urine. Also called as direct bilirubin.


Thursday, July 28, 2011

International Code of Medical Ethics (Part 3)

Duties of Doctors to the Sick

1. A DOCTOR MUST always bear in mind the importance of preserving human life from the time of conception until death.

2. A DOCTOR OWES to his patient complete loyalty and all the resources of his science. Whenever an examination or treatment is beyond his capacity he should summon another doctor who has the necessary ability.

3. A DOCTOR OWES to his patient absolutely secrecy on all which has been confided to him or which he knows because of the confidence entrusted to him.

4. A DOCTOR MUST GIVE the necessary treatment in emergency as a humanitarian duty, unless he is assured that it can and will be given by others.

Duties of Doctors in General

1. A DOCTOR MUST always maintain the highest standards of professional conduct.

2. A DOCTOR MUST practice his/her profession uninfluenced by motives of profit.

3. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES is a doctor permitted to do anything that would weaken the physical or mental resistance of a human being, except from strictly therapeutic or prophylactic indications imposed in the interest of the patient.

4. A DOCTOR IS ADVISED to use great caution in publishing discoveries. The same applies to methods of treatment whose value is not recognized by the profession.

5. WHEN A DOCTOR IS CALLED UPON to give evidence or a certificate he should only state that which he personally can verify.

THE FOLLOWING PRACTICES are deemed unethical:
a) Any self advertisement except such as expressly authorized by the national code of medical ethics.
b) Taking part in any plan of medical care in which the doctor does not have professional independence.
c) To receive any money in connection with services rendered to a patient other than the acceptance of a proper professional fee, or to pay any money in the same circumstances without the knowledge of the patient.

Duties of Doctors to Each Other

1. A DOCTOR OUGHT to behave to his colleagues as he would have them behave to him.

2. A DOCTOR MUST NOT entice patients from his colleagues.

3. A DOCTOR MUST OBSERVE the principles of "The Declaration of Geneva" approved by The World Medical Association.
Declaration of Geneva

Before; Part 1

Evolution/History of Medical Ethics
Unethical Behaviours/Experiments
World Medical Association
American Medical Association

Before; Part 2

Nuremberg Code
Declaration of Geneva
Declaration of Helsinki
Declaration of Tokyo
The Belmont Report
Principles of Medical Ethics


International Code of Medical Ethics (Part 2)

Nuremberg Code (1947)

1. Voluntary human consent is essential
2. Experimental result should result in good for society
3. Anticipated result should justify the experiment
4. Avoid all unnecessary mental and physical suffering
5. No experiment if there is risk of death or disability
6. Minimize the risk of subject
7. Proper preparations and facilities to protect subjects
8. Can only be conducted by qualified person
9. Subjects can withdraw anytime
10. Terminate experiment if results are known or with best judgement

Full 10 Nuremberg Code

1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonable to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.

2. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.

3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.

4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.

5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.

6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.

7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.

8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.

9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.

10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

Declaration of Geneva (1948)

- The Declaration of Geneva was adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association at Geneva in 1948.
- Amended in 1968, 1983, 1994, 2005 and 2006.
- It was also called as the physician's oath.


I SOLEMNLY PLEDGE to consecrate my life to the service of humanity;

I WILL GIVE to my teachers the respect and gratitude that is their due;

I WILL PRACTISE my profession with conscience and dignity;

THE HEALTH OF MY PATIENT will be my first consideration;

I WILL RESPECT the secrets that are confided in me, even after the patient has died;

I WILL MAINTAIN by all the means in my power, the honour and the noble traditions of the medical profession;

MY COLLEAGUES will be my sisters and brothers;

I WILL NOT PERMIT considerations of age, disease or disability, creed, ethnic origin, gender, nationality, political affiliation, race, sexual orientation, social standing or any other factor to intervene between my duty and my patient;

I WILL MAINTAIN the utmost respect for human life;

I WILL NOT USE my medical knowledge to violate human rights and civil liberties, even under threat;

I MAKE THESE PROMISES solemnly, freely and upon my honour.

Declaration of Helsinki (1964)

- One of the most improtant measures in protecting human subjects involved in medical research
- Internationally regarded as a cornerstone of research ethics
- The free will of the participant (informed consent) is the basis for any research on humans
- Amended in 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2008


1. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data.
The Declaration is intended to be read as a whole and each of its constituent paragraphs should not be applied without consideration of all other relevant paragraphs.

2. Although the Declaration is addressed primarily to physicians, the WMA encourages other participants in medical research involving human subjects to adopt these principles.

3. It is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health of patients, including those who are involved in medical research. The physician's knowledge and conscience are dedicated to the fulfilment of this duty.

4. The Declaration of Geneva of the WMA binds the physician with the words, "The health of my patient will be my first consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act in the patient's best interest when providing medical care."

5. Medical progress is based on research that ultimately must include studies involving human subjects. Populations that are underrepresented in medical research should be provided appropriate access to participation in research.

6. In medical research involving human subjects, the well-being of the individual research subject must take precedence over all other interests.

7. The primary purpose of medical research involving human subjects is to understand the causes, development and effects of diseases and improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions (methods, procedures and treatments). Even the best current interventions must be evaluated continually through research for their safety, effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility and quality.

8. In medical practice and in medical research, most interventions involve risks and burdens.

9. Medical research is subject to ethical standards that promote respect for all human subjects and protect their health and rights. Some research populations are particularly vulnerable and need special protection. These include those who cannot give or refuse consent for themselves and those who may be vulnerable to coercion or undue influence.

10. Physicians should consider the ethical, legal and regulatory norms and standards for research involving human subjects in their own countries as well as applicable international norms and standards. No national or international ethical, legal or regulatory requirement should reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration.


11. It is the duty of physicians who participate in medical research to protect the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination, privacy, and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects.

12. Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and adequate laboratory and, as appropriate, animal experimentation. The welfare of animals used for research must be respected.

13. Appropriate caution must be exercised in the conduct of medical research that may harm the environment.

14. The design and performance of each research study involving human subjects must be clearly described in a research protocol. The protocol should contain a statement of the ethical considerations involved and should indicate how the principles in this Declaration have been addressed. The protocol should include information regarding funding, sponsors, institutional affiliations, other potential conflicts of interest, incentives for subjects and provisions for treating and/or compensating subjects who are harmed as a consequence of participation in the research study. The protocol should describe arrangements for post-study access by study subjects to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or access to other appropriate care or benefits.

15. The research protocol must be submitted for consideration, comment, guidance and approval to a research ethics committee before the study begins. This committee must be independent of the researcher, the sponsor and any other undue influence. It must take into consideration the laws and regulations of the country or countries in which the research is to be performed as well as applicable international norms and standards but these must not be allowed to reduce or eliminate any of the protections for research subjects set forth in this Declaration. The committee must have the right to monitor ongoing studies. The researcher must provide monitoring information to the committee, especially information about any serious adverse events. No change to the protocol may be made without consideration and approval by the committee.

16. Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted only by individuals with the appropriate scientific training and qualifications. Research on patients or healthy volunteers requires the supervision of a competent and appropriately qualified physician or other health care professional. The responsibility for the protection of research subjects must always rest with the physician or other health care professional and never the research subjects, even though they have given consent.

17. Medical research involving a disadvantaged or vulnerable population or community is only justified if the research is responsive to the health needs and priorities of this population or community and if there is a reasonable likelihood that this population or community stands to benefit from the results of the research.

18. Every medical research study involving human subjects must be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks and burdens to the individuals and communities involved in the research in comparison with foreseeable benefits to them and to other individuals or communities affected by the condition under investigation.

19. Every clinical trial must be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject.

20. Physicians may not participate in a research study involving human subjects unless they are confident that the risks involved have been adequately assessed and can be satisfactorily managed. Physicians must immediately stop a study when the risks are found to outweigh the potential benefits or when there is conclusive proof of positive and beneficial results.

21. Medical research involving human subjects may only be conducted if the importance of the objective outweighs the inherent risks and burdens to the research subjects.

22. Participation by competent individuals as subjects in medical research must be voluntary. Although it may be appropriate to consult family members or community leaders, no competent individual may be enrolled in a research study unless he or she freely agrees.

23. Every precaution must be taken to protect the privacy of research subjects and the confidentiality of their personal information and to minimize the impact of the study on their physical, mental and social integrity.

24. In medical research involving competent human subjects, each potential subject must be adequately informed of the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible conflicts of interest, institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of the study and the discomfort it may entail, and any other relevant aspects of the study. The potential subject must be informed of the right to refuse to participate in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any time without reprisal. Special attention should be given to the specific information needs of individual potential subjects as well as to the methods used to deliver the information. After ensuring that the potential subject has understood the information, the physician or another appropriately qualified individual must then seek the potential subject's freely-given informed consent, preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be expressed in writing, the non-written consent must be formally documented and witnessed.

25. For medical research using identifiable human material or data, physicians must normally seek consent for the collection, analysis, storage and/or reuse. There may be situations where consent would be impossible or impractical to obtain for such research or would pose a threat to the validity of the research. In such situations the research may be done only after consideration and approval of a research ethics committee.

26. When seeking informed consent for participation in a research study the physician should be particularly cautious if the potential subject is in a dependent relationship with the physician or may consent under duress. In such situations the informed consent should be sought by an appropriately qualified individual who is completely independent of this relationship.

27. For a potential research subject who is incompetent, the physician must seek informed consent from the legally authorized representative. These individuals must not be included in a research study that has no likelihood of benefit for them unless it is intended to promote the health of the population represented by the potential subject, the research cannot instead be performed with competent persons, and the research entails only minimal risk and minimal burden.

28. When a potential research subject who is deemed incompetent is able to give assent to decisions about participation in research, the physician must seek that assent in addition to the consent of the legally authorized representative. The potential subject's dissent should be respected.

29. Research involving subjects who are physically or mentally incapable of giving consent, for example, unconscious patients, may be done only if the physical or mental condition that prevents giving informed consent is a necessary characteristic of the research population. In such circumstances the physician should seek informed consent from the legally authorized representative. If no such representative is available and if the research cannot be delayed, the study may proceed without informed consent provided that the specific reasons for involving subjects with a condition that renders them unable to give informed consent have been stated in the research protocol and the study has been approved by a research ethics committee. Consent to remain in the research should be obtained as soon as possible from the subject or a legally authorized representative.

30. Authors, editors and publishers all have ethical obligations with regard to the publication of the results of research. Authors have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports. They should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting. Negative and inconclusive as well as positive results should be published or otherwise made publicly available. Sources of funding, institutional affiliations and conflicts of interest should be declared in the publication. Reports of research not in accordance with the principles of this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.


31. The physician may combine medical research with medical care only to the extent that the research is justified by its potential preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic value and if the physician has good reason to believe that participation in the research study will not adversely affect the health of the patients who serve as research subjects.

32. The benefits, risks, burdens and effectiveness of a new intervention must be tested against those of the best current proven intervention, except in the following circumstances:

The use of placebo, or no treatment, is acceptable in studies where no current proven intervention exists; or

Where for compelling and scientifically sound methodological reasons the use of placebo is necessary to determine the efficacy or safety of an intervention and the patients who receive placebo or no treatment will not be subject to any risk of serious or irreversible harm. Extreme care must be taken to avoid abuse of this option.

33. At the conclusion of the study, patients entered into the study are entitled to be informed about the outcome of the study and to share any benefits that result from it, for example, access to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or to other appropriate care or benefits.

34. The physician must fully inform the patient which aspects of the care are related to the research. The refusal of a patient to participate in a study or the patient's decision to withdraw from the study must never interfere with the patient-physician relationship.

35. In the treatment of a patient, where proven interventions do not exist or have been ineffective, the physician, after seeking expert advice, with informed consent from the patient or a legally authorized representative, may use an unproven intervention if in the physician's judgement it offers hope of saving life, re-establishing health or alleviating suffering. Where possible, this intervention should be made the object of research, designed to evaluate its safety and efficacy. In all cases, new information should be recorded and, where appropriate, made publicly available.

Declaration of Tokyo (1975)

- Outlines the guidelines for physicians concerning torture and other cruel, inhuman ore degrading treatment in relation to detention or imprisonment.
- It declares torture to be "contrary to the laws of humanity," and antithetical to the "higher purpose" of the physician, which is to "alleviate the distress of his or her fellow human being."
- The policy states that doctors should refuse to participate in, condone, or give permission for torture, degradation, or cruel treatment of prisoners or detainees.

1. The physician shall not countenance, condone or participate in the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading procedures, whatever the offense of which the victim of such procedures is suspected, accused or guilty, and whatever the victim's beliefs or motives, and in all situations, including armed conflict and civil strife.

2. The physician shall not provide any premises, instruments, substances or knowledge to facilitate the practice of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or to diminish the ability of the victim to resist such treatment.

3. When providing medical assistance to detainees or prisoners who are, or who could later be, under interrogation, physicians should be particularly careful to ensure the confidentiality of all personal medical information. A breach of the Geneva Conventions shall in any case be reported by the physician to relevant authorities.

4. The physician shall not use nor allow to be used, as far as he or she can, medical knowledge or skills, or health information specific to individuals, to facilitate or otherwise aid any interrogation, legal or illegal, of those individuals.

5. The physician shall not be present during any procedure during which torture or any other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment is used or threatened.

6. A physician must have complete clinical independence in deciding upon the care of a person for whom he or she is medically responsible. The physician's fundamental role is to alleviate the distress of his or her fellow human beings, and no motive, whether personal, collective or political, shall prevail against this higher purpose.

7. Where a prisoner refuses nourishment and is considered by the physician as capable of forming an unimpaired and rational judgment concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, he or she shall not be fed artificially. The decision as to the capacity of the prisoner to form such a judgment should be confirmed by at least one other independent physician. The consequences of the refusal of nourishment shall be explained by the physician to the prisoner.

8. The World Medical Association will support, and should encourage the international community, the National Medical Associations and fellow physicians to support, the physician and his or her family in the face of threats or reprisals resulting from a refusal to condone the use of torture or other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

The Belmont Report (1979)

- A report created by the former United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (which was renamed to Health and Human Services) entitled "Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research," authored by Dan Harms, and is an important historical document in the field of medical ethics.
- Was created on April 18, 1979 and gets its name from the Belmont Conference Center where the document was drafted.

1. Respect for persons: protecting the autonomy of all people and treating them with courtesy and respect and allowing for informed consent. Researchers must be truthful and conduct no deception;

2. Beneficence: The philosophy of "Do no harm" while maximizing benefits for the research project and minimizing risks to the research subjects; and

3. Justice: ensuring reasonable, non-exploitative, and well-considered procedures are administered fairly — the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research participants — and equally.

Principles of Medical Ethics (1957)

- Adopted by American Medical Association
- Revised in 1980, 2001

I. A physician shall be dedicated to providing competent medical care, with compassion and respect for human dignity and rights.

II. A physician shall uphold the standards of professionalism, be honest in all professional interactions, and strive to report physicians deficient in character or competence, or engaging in fraud or deception, to appropriate entities.

III. A physician shall respect the law and also recognize a responsibility to seek changes in those requirements which are contrary to the best interests of the patient.

IV. A physician shall respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals, and shall safeguard patient confidences and privacy within the constraints of the law.

V. A physician shall continue to study, apply, and advance scientific knowledge, maintain a commitment to medical education, make relevant information available to patients, colleagues, and the public, obtain consultation, and use the talents of other health professionals when indicated.

VI. A physician shall, in the provision of appropriate patient care, except in emergencies, be free to choose whom to serve, with whom to associate, and the environment in which to provide medical care.

VII. A physician shall recognize a responsibility to participate in activities contributing to the improvement of the community and the betterment of public health.

VIII. A physician shall, while caring for a patient, regard responsibility to the patient as paramount.

IX. A physician shall support access to medical care for all people.

Before; Part 1
Evolution/History of Medical Ethics
Unethical Behaviours/Experiments
World Medical Association
American Medical Association

Continue; Part 3
Duties of Doctors to the Sick
Duties of Doctors in General
Duties of Doctors to Each Other

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

International Code of Medical Ethics (Part 1)

Lectured by: Dr. Srivinasa; Management & Science University
Notes by: Dr. Srinivasa, Malilith F. Ila

Evolution/History of Medical Ethics

1. Hippocrates (500 BC) is generally regarded as the founder of medical ethics. He was the originator of the concept of medicine as a profession whereby physicians make a public declaration to place the needs and interests of patients above their own.
He created the Hippocratic Oath.

2. During the middle ages, medical ethics was strongly influenced by religious thinkers.

3. The first book dedicated to medical ethics was written by Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi; "Practical Ethics of the Physician"
Other sources of medical ethics include;
- Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (Muslim)
- Thomas Aquinas (Christian)
- Maimonides (Jewish)
- Thomas Percival; a British physician (1740-1804) wrote about medical juriprudence and reportedly coined the phrase "medical ethics"
- American Medical Association adopted its first code of ethics, based in large part of Percival work (1847)

Unethical Behaviours/Experiments

1. Nazi's "Medical" Experiments (1945)
- The "Doctor's Trial" - Nuremberg War Crime Trials (Gang of 23)
- They experiments on prisoners, inmates, and "others" without consent.
- Most subjects are tortured with cruelties and other inhuman acts.
- Ex: Freezing, malaria, high altitude, underwater, starvation, sound, mental

In respond to this, Nuremberg code (1947) was set. It's a set of pronciples governing ethical conduct of research with humans.

2. Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932)
- To investigate the long term effects of untreated syphilis
- African Americans were recruited to participate to death.
- They weren't told the purpose of study, the disease they had and no treatment was offered even when it was available 8 years later
- They also couldn't quit the programme, were offered illegal inducements
- The study continued for 40 years
- Was stopped in 1972 due to newspaper article
- 1974; US government agreed to out-of-court settlement; the survivors were given compensation. U.S. government promised to provide a range of free services to the survivors of the study, their wives, widows, and children. All living participants became immediately entitled to free medical and burial services.

3. Jewish Chronic Diseases Hospital, Brooklyn (1963)
- Cancer cells were injected into delilitated elderly patients to see if they would immunologically reject the cells.

4. Willowbrook State Hospital, New York (1972)
- Retarded children were deliberately infected with viral hepatitis to study its natural history

World Medical Association

- Was founded in 18th Spetember 1947 by physicians from 27 countries
- Membership includes over 80 National Medical Associations; and over 10 million physicians
- Works to ensure the independance of physicians and the highest possible ethical standard of care and behaviour by physicians
- The purpose of the WMA is to serve humanity by endeavoring to achieve the highest international standards in Medical Education, Medical Science, Medical Art and Medical Ethics, and Health Care for all people in the world

Main decision making body; General Assembly
Political body; WMA Council
- Assembly elects the WMA council every 2 years
- Chairperson of council is the political head; elected every 2 years by the Council
- Ceremonial Head of WMA is the president; anually elected by Assembly
- Secretary-General is in full time employment at WMA Secretariat (Ferney-Voltaire, France); appointed by the Council

- Published the World Medical Journal
- Offers internet courses in its site
- Revived Hippocratic oath and the practice of it being administered as part of a medical licensing ceremony
- 1952; Committee of Medical Ethics is formed to discuss various ethical issues
- Has no legal powers

American Medical Association

- Founded in 1847; incorporated in 1897
- Largest association of physicians and medical students in the United States
- AMA's stated mission is to promote the art and science of medicine for the betterment of the public health, to advance the interests of physicians and their patients, to promote public health, to lobby for legislation favorable to physicians and patients, and to raise money for medical education

Continue; Part 2
Nuremberg Code
Declaration of Geneva
Declaration of Helsinki
Declaration of Tokyo
The Belmont Report
Principles of Medical Ethics

Continue; Part 3
Duties of Doctors to the Sick
Duties of Doctors in General
Duties of Doctors to Each Other

Pacemaker Action Potential In Autorythmic Cells

Lectured by: Dr. Fatima; Management & Science University
Notes by: Malilith F. Ila

Action Potential;
A short-term change in electrical potential on the surface of the cell in response to stimulation, and then leads to the transmission of an electrical impulse that travels across the cell membrane. The electrical membrane potential of the cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory.

- A form of transport through the nervous fibres.
- Change of charge; change in the movements of ions (sodium, potassium, calcium) across the cell membrane.

Resting membrane potential;
The electrical potential of the inside of a cell, relative to its surroundings. Happens when the cell is at rest where there is no action potential initiated.

Extra: Cardiac muscle is independant!

Main Types of Cardiac Muscle Cells

i) Contractile cells
- 99%
- For contraction
ii) Autorythmic cells
- 1%
- For intitation of action potential
- Non contractile

Pacemaker Action Potential In Autorythmic Cells

1. Depolarization
- A slow process
- From -60 to -40 (to treshold)
- Going towards positive

i) Decreased passive outflux of K+ [Potassium]
- Less K+ leave the cell membrane due to slow closure of K+ channels
ii) Increased Ca++ [Calcium] influx
- More Ca++ come inside the cell due to opening of T-type calcium xhannels
iii) No changes in Na+ [Sodium]

2. Rising phase in action potential
- A fast process
- From -40 to around 0
- Going towards positive

i) Raise in Ca++ influx in huge amount
- More Ca++ enter the cell membrane due to activation of L-type calcium channel

3. Falling phase of action potential
- A rather fast process
- From around 0 to -60
- Going towards negative

i) Increased outflux of K+ [Potassium]
- K+ exits the cell membrane due to activation of potassium channels.

Reference: [just for my guideline]